Oscars 2017: Predictions

Usually I do a “Will Win” and “Should Win” but this year I feel that I agree with most of what will end up winning. So instead, I’m going to do a “My Win” and put who I would vote for if I was an Oscar voter. Again, I’d like to reiterate that I do largely agree with who is going to end up winning on Oscar night, and that any alternative choices are really more of my other favorites this year.

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Best Picture

Will Win: La La Land

My Win: Manchester by the Sea or Hidden Figures

Since Hollywood is in love with itself, La La Land – a twisted homage of the class studio musicals – is the clear winner and a lock for Best Picture.While I certainly admire a lot of aspects of La La Land, I do admit that on my second viewing the film’s spell lost its luster. (Although I do not subscribe to the hyperbolic reactionary hate its been getting lately) I do agree that this should get Best Picture, but I also adored Manchester by the Sea, quite possibly one of the most beautiful examinations of tragedy and family dynamics I’ve seen. I also wish Hidden Figures, while receiving tremendous box office success, got more recognition. It is one of those feel-good life stories can be universally adored as well as an integral story about WOC that begs to be told. To see Hidden Figures win Best Picture would be quite a wonderful feat.

Best Director

Will Win: Damien Chazelle for La La Land

My Win: Damien Chazelle for La La Land

Like many categories this year, I find it next to impossible to pick my own winner. The directing for all of the nominees, Moonlight, Manchester by the Sea, Arrival, and yes, I did think Mel Gibson’s work in Hacksaw Ridge was incredible, I know that is problematic. Chazelle is certainly the lock for this category, and I do believe he deserves it for visionary his pet/dream project. However, some may argue that Chazelle isn’t really doing anything original and instead co-opting, rather than homaging, his Hollywood influences.

Best Actor

Will Win: Casey Affleck for Manchester by the Sea

My Win: Casey Affleck for Manchester by the Sea

I know the problematic history surrounded Casey Affleck, and I understand that my support contributes to that. But at the same time, his performance in Manchester by the Sea is one of the greatest male performances I have ever seen.

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Best Actress

Will Win: Emma Stone for La La Land

My Win: Natalie Portman for Jackie

La La Land is definitely the role of a lifetime for Emma Stone, and I do think she was perfect for it. Her particular comedic flair really shines through in the musical numbers. I do wish that she had a bit more vocal power, though perhaps that fits with La La Land‘s aesthetic of “regular” people in a half-real half-Hollywood dream. “The Fools Who Dream” scene is definitely the height of her performance, and after I first saw the film I declared it as the singular lock for her Oscar win. However, I must also acknowledge the strength of Portman’s performance as Jackie O. Portman manages to skate past the cliched traps that a weaker actor would have fallen into, and this is no easy task with such an iconic figure. Her tour de force performance culminates in the raw, emotional post-assassination scene.

Best Supporting Actor

Will Win: Mahershala Ali for Moonlight

My Win: Michael Shannon for Nocturnal Animals 

This is another strong category with many potential winners. Ali is the clear front runner, and I definitely support that. I would also have trouble choosing between Lucas Hedges, the young nominee from Manchester by the Sea who brought an equal amount of emotional gravitas and wry humor. Another personal favorite of mine is Dev Patel for Lion. I would also be inclined to choose Michael Shannon, an underrated actor that always brings his A game. He brings a certain eerie understatement to his frequently twisted and dark characters. His role in Nocturnal Animals as a caustic and vengeful cop left a strong impression on me long after the end credits rolled.

Best Supporting Actress:

Will Win: Viola Davis for Fences

My Win: Michelle Williams for Manchester by the Sea

Viola Davis was absolutely incredible in Fences and is long overdue for an Oscar. (Sorry, but I’ll never get over Streep winning for The Iron Lady. Davis should’ve won for The Help.) If not for Fences, I would vote for Michelle Williams. Williams always delivers a nuanced and tender performance, and this is never more true than in her small but heart-wrenching scene as a grieving mother begging for forgiveness.

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Best Original Screenplay

Will Win: Kenneth Logerman for Manchester by the Sea

My Win: Kenneth Logerman for Manchester by the Sea

La La Land is another possible win, and The Lobster also deserves recognition here for its twisted Brechtian romance, but I would ultimately choose Logerman’s devastating American tragedy. His deliberate use of flashbacks is some of the most finely crafted storytelling I’ve seen in recent times.

Best Adapted Screenplay: 

Will Win: Barry Jenkins and Tarell Alvin McCraney for Moonlight

My Win: Theodore Melfi and Allison Schroeder Hidden Figures

Moonlight has been (rightfully) highly regarded by critics, but also overshadowed by La La Land‘s success. This category may be one of the few wins that it wins. Arrival and Lion are other worthy choices, but in my opinion Fences is too close to the play to win. I would choose Hidden Figures because the writers were able to craft an emotional and soaring story from a non-fiction account of historical figures that we have neglected to honor.

Best Cinematography

Will Win: Linus Sandgren for La La Land

My Win: Rodrigo Prieto for Silence 

La La Land is all about its “look,” one that evokes the Technicolor heyday of Old Hollywood. The film will likely sweep the awards this year, and the cinematography category will be another likely win. I think Moonlight is another strong contender for its gorgeous pastel and neon Miami landscapes. But Silence‘s imagery really stuck out to me, from the idyllic rolling Japanese hillsides to the dark, unsettling prisoner camps made barely discernible by the small licks of fire.

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Best Film Editing

Will Win: Tom Cross for La La Land

My Win: John Gilbert for Hacksaw Ridge

I would vote for Hacksaw Ridge for its elegant battle sequences and the tight pacing of the leading character’s heroic rescues. However, La La Land‘s well-crafted musical sequences will edge all other nominees out.

Best Original Score

Will Win: Justin Hurwitz for La La Land

My Win: Mica Levi for Jackie

Hurwitz’s sweeping, jazz-influenced score will likely win, but Levi’s haunting, discordant score added to both the grandiosity of the Camelot myth and the tragedy of the Kennedy family’s life.

Best Visual Effects

Will Win:Robert Legato, Adam Valdez, Andrew R. Jones, Dan Lemmon for The  Jungle Book

My Win: John Knoll, Mohen Leo, Hal T. Hickel, Neil Corbould for Rouge One: A Star Wars Story

I still have yet to see The Jungle Book, but I’ve heard the praise its received for the astounding CGI animal characters and environments. I’m certain I’d agree, but I’d also like to acknowledge Rouge One for its fantastic mix of both practical and computer effects, as well as its well-crafted use of scale.

Best Costume Design:

Will Win: Madeline Fontaine for Jackie

My Win: Madeline Fontaine for Jackie

Fantastic Beasts and Allied have stunning period costumes, but this category is actually between La La Land and Jackie, although I think Jackie has more of an edge. Fontaine had the difficult task of capturing Jackie O’s iconic historical fashion sense. I think it would be a shame for La La Land to win for what looks like budget ModCloth dresses.

Top 10: 2016

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1. Manchester By the Sea

Manchester by the Sea is a masterful character piece that explores the frailties and intricacies of grief and familial tragedy. Writer and director Kenneth Lonnergan expertly weaves his narrative’s past and present through haunting extended flashbacks that manage to convey the minute preciousness of human life. Casey Afleck gives one of the finest male performances of all time, carrying his character’s engulfing pain in every glance, his hunched shoulders, and quiet repose. Michelle Williams matches his caliber (though, no surprise there as she always delivers a fine performance) in an anticipatory and devastating final scene. Manchester by the Sea does not completely wallow in gloom, as there are many humorous moments and traces of the family comedy genre. This is a testament to the film’s power, as Lonnergan and the actors manage to convey life’s ever-flowing and perpetual amalgam of pain and pleasure within seemingly infinitesimal gestures, glances, and moments.

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2. Hacksaw Ridge

“War is hell” they say, and perhaps no other film since Saving Private Ryan expresses this sentiment best as Hacksaw Ridge. The horrific carnage of the gritty and graphic battle sequences convey the psychological devastation of war and provide extraordinary stakes for its lead character, Desmond Doss. Doss is an outcast in his squad for his strong Christian beliefs and refusal to carry a gun in battle. Yet, he miraculously manages to save hundreds of his fellow soldiers. Andrew Garfield gives a powerful performance as Doss, providing the film’s central heart and intensity and a character the audience can truly root for. Doss proves the immense power of committing your convictions. Hacksaw Ridge is a gripping and inspiring story of passion, dedication, and a death-defying heroism like you’ve never seen.  Even if you are not particularly religious, it is hard not to be moved by this incredible story and Gibson’s sweeping vision.

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3. Christine

Christine perhaps the only film to so accurately express the traumas of depression. The minutiae of mental illness is found in director Antonio Campos’ uncomfortable close-ups and lingering shots. Rebecca Hall gives one of the finest female performances I’ve ever seen as Christine Chubbuck, a young news reporter who killed herself on a live broadcast in the 1970s. Hall expertly dives into the bleak waters of her character’s emotional turmoil. Her lack of nominations and awards buzz is absolutely astounding. Christine gets under the skin of its lead character, delving into her private life in ways that may be too close for comfort. Campos eradicates the potentialities of sick voyeurism in his refusal to sensationalize her death. It is simply a devastating outcome of a terrible mental illness and unhappy life. Christine is a raw and powerful viewing experience that will haunt you.

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4. La La Land

La La Land has received an overwhelming amount of praise and Oscar buzz, and I believe rightfully so. It is Damien Chazelle’s innovative and spirited vision that accounts for the film’s success. The visuals, more so than the thin singing voices of its otherwise charismatic leads Ryan Gosling and Emma Stone, or even the story itself, is what makes La La Land so special. Chazelle’s impeccable eye for rhythm established in Whiplash flourishes in the musical medium. What is so intriguing about the film is that it functions as both a homage and reversion of the Old Hollywood musical. The spirits of Singin’ in the Rain or Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers are readily felt, yet Chazelle foregrounds his story with a modern sensibility. The heart of La La Land’s magic spell is its ability to blend fantasy with reality and 1950s cinematic traditions with contemporary ideals. It stands as a melancholic ode to artists, the “fools who dream,” and is an overall majestic cinematic experience.

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5. The Lobster

Yorgos Lanthimos’ Brechtian comedy is a strange, surrealist portrait of a dystopian world perhaps not so far from our own. The film’s eccentric sensibilities work to reveal the oddities of modern courtship, our societal rules for the perusal and cultivation of an “adult relationship.” The Lobster suggests that it is not the film itself, but rather our need to build a society terrified of singledom and predicated on the acquirement of a soulmate that is truly absurd. The Lobster manages to expose the ego-centrism, shallowness, and narcissism of online dating, where we hinge equating traits and interests on the entirety of our future with another human. Colin Farrell and Rachel Wesiz lead the film with strong performances that match the film’s offbeat tenor.

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6. Toni Erdmann

Toni Erdmann is a bizarre and charming family dramedy sure to elicit plenty of smiles and belly-laughs, one that plays on the inherent embarrassment all children feel of their parents. It tells the story of a practical jokester father who feels he is growing apart from his corporate professional daughter. He disguises himself as her CEO’s “life coach,” a bold, quirky weirdo who is unafraid of any situation, to be a part of her life again, break her out of her shell, and rekindle their former closeness. The film features one of the most memorable scenes of the year, the daughter singing Whitney Houston’s hit “The Greatest Love of All.” Despite its daunting length, it never feels slow. Toni Erdmann is one of the most unique films of the year, one that builds to a side-splitting and poignant climax.

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7. Jackie

Director Pablo Larrain departs from the patterns of a typical biopic to present a subjective experience of Jacqueline Kennedy’s fight to maintain composure and sanity in the aftermath of her prolific husband’s untimely and horrific death. We infiltrate the privacy of the alpine White House walls to view the First Lady’s struggle to uphold her trademark dignity and poise despite the threat of collapse. Jackie is more of a psychological portrait and performance showpiece than a strong film in and of itself. This is anchored by Natalie Portman’s enthralling performance. Portman manages to side-step any clichéd traps that befall an actor playing this iconic American figure. Most importantly, Jackie meditates on the ideas of constructing legacy, and how at many times a woman’s contribution can be overshadowed by their male counterpart.

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8. Indignation

Indignation manages to capture the quiet poeticism of Phillip Roth’s writing, no easy task. Helmed by a talented writer-director James Schamus, Indignation explores a teenager’s sexual awakening and challenge of authority within the stifling conventionalism of 1950s America. Indignation is the kind of film that allows its actors to breathe and Logan Lerman leads the charge with a compelling and curious grace. His drawn-out and agonizing diatribe with the Dean, played by Tracy Letts, is one of the most memorable scenes of the year. Schamus’ strict period details convey the characters’ oppressive world, but the narrative’s subtext of death and darkness, especially with war on the horizon, subverts the presentational beauty of the 1950s. Indignation leaves you with the terrifying and arresting idea that every small decision you make could potentially lead to the utmost doom.

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9. Lion

Lion is one of the most undeniably uplifting films of this year. A sweeping and grand journey across oceans and continents, Lion is based on the incredible true story of a young Indian boy seperated from his family after falling asleep on a train. After several frightening encounters navigating the slums of India, Saroo is adopted by a wealthy white Australian couple. Dev Patel plays Saroo as a conflicted adult torn between his love for his adopted family and yearning to return to his origins. Saroo cannot correctly remember the name of the village he comes from, so he must resort to using Google Earth to find his hometown. This is an arduous and near-impossible task, much like finding a needle in a haystack. Lion’s ending has an emotional punch that will wring a fountainous flow of tears out of you. Lion is about the power of family, both those bound to you by blood and the family you can create with others. Lion is truly one of the must-see films of 2016, and a film that will be remembered for its earnest and passionate spirit.

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10. Green Room 

Once Green Room grabs you, it never lets go. A punk band travels to a last minute booking for a group of Neo-Nazis in a decrepit backwoods hideaway. After witnessing a murder backstage, they bargain with the club’s sadistic owner to escape the sordid confines of the green room alive. This dirty, chaotic environment only exacerbates the film’s grisly terror. Since no character seems to be safe from the Neo-Nazi’s barbaric awfulness, the film maintains nail-biting tension and keeps you guessing throughout the entirety of their great escape. Gorehounds will relish in the film’s brutal violent surprises. Green Room is one of the finest horror thrill-rides in recent years.

Honorable Mentions: MoonlightNocturnal Animals, Loving, The Witch, Hell or High Water 

 

Born on the Fourth of July: A Dangerous Mother

Born on the Fourth of July is an adaptation of Ron Kovic’s autobiography. Kovic begins as a patriotic high school wrestling superstar who enthusiastically enlists in the Marines. During his second tour in Vietnam, he accidentally kills a solider and later becomes permanently paralyzed from the waist down. The poor conditions of the Veterans Administration hospital and his recognition of the war’s futility lead him to become a prolific anti-war movement leader. The film’s roots in Ron Kovic’s memoirs leave little room for the subjectivity of other characters. Ron serves as the film’s orbit, and the women revolve around him as clichés.

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In line with Ron’s harsh Catholic upbringing, Born on the Fourth of July egregiously mobilizes moral oppositions. In other words, it starkly draws the lines between good and evil. This moral schema extends to the key female character in the film—Ron’s mother, Mrs. Kovic. We have little sense of her motivations outside of her patriarchal and jingoistic values. Mrs. Kovic’s obsession with fighting Communism (“It’s God’s will you go!”) and strict enforcement of oppressive puritanical Catholicism lead to her son’s psychological trauma, thus positioning her as a villain.

The narrative does not construct her as an ideological victim, or in other words, a character confined by the constrictions of 1950s gender roles. Rather, she embraces the values of and her position within the 1950s American nuclear family  Ron’s mother is the one to victimize her son with certain toxic ideologies that motivate his suffering, such as individualism, male dominance, and xenophobia. Overall, the narrative excludes women by limiting their voice to clichés.

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Ron’s disabled body and disillusioned spirit destroy Mrs. Kovic’s pre-Vietnam innocent and romanticized vision of him. It is in her rejection and discounting of Ron, I argue, that causes him to seek maternal comfort, approval, and a sense of love from other female figures in the narrative. Director Oliver Stone presents a highly saccharine portrait of Mrs. Kovic’s refuge (pre-Vietnam society) as the ultimate space of innocence He envisions 1950s America as an idyllic land of parades, home runs at baseball games, parental adoration, Kennedy’s rhetoric, and young, innocent love.

To match this sentimental vision, Ron’s mother first appears as an angel, shrouded in the heavenly glow of the film’s white tint. This moment contrasts with her final scene with Ron. When Ron returns home inebriated, soothing his rejection from his former prom date, we view Mrs. Kovic from his POV: a slight, high-angle shot in low-key lighting that renders her as an oppressive and frightening figure.

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Ron’s tirade against the values Mrs. Kovic had instilled in him—pride in his country and belief in God—defines the scene. It becomes clear that he has developed a psychological complex about sexuality that will last throughout the remainder of the film. Ron feels Catholic guilt for wanting sexual satisfaction coupled with a frustration that he no longer has the ability to soothe these desires due to his disabled state. He fears remaining infantilized, as he had not lost his virginity before becoming paralyzed. Ron pulls out his catheter as he mourns his “dead penis” lost in the jungles of Vietnam. He cries, “The church, they say it’s a sin if you play with your penis but I sure wish I could.”

Ron’s mother screams and covers her ears because she cannot bear to hear these impure thoughts. In the culmination of their heated fight, Ron accuses his mother of forcing him to go to Vietnam, a corrupted war that made him kill women and children. After he denounces God and country, Mrs. Kovic declares Ron blasphemous and bans him from the house. Although Mrs. Kovic appears only in a few scenes, it is clear the psychological damage she inflicts her son is great.

Scene Sound Off: Masculin Feminin

While I am going to focus on the laundromat scene, I want to examine part of the six-minute tracking shot that precedes it. Paul records a poetical monologue in a record-making booth. The satisfaction of his purchase is signaled by an overlaying pop song beginning as he emerges from the booth. He walks into a room next door to play pinball where a man holding a switchblade confronts him. The jubilant song continues as he forces him out of the room and abruptly stops as they reach the exit.  This demonstrates New Wave’s use of mixing and harshly contrasting tones and emphasis on filmic manipulation. A West Side Story-esque showdown seems imminent as the man flashes his blade—then suddenly and incomprehensibly– he stabs himself! The playful pop song plays once again, once again mixing tone by harshly juxtaposing the sudden violence. The next scene places Paul in a laundromat, where Godard employs the use of disorienting jump cuts as he paces around telling a story. Paul is rapidly positioned throughout the laundromat with no logical path. Through this quick succession of disparate editing practices, Godard exposes film’s constructed nature.

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The next part of the scene places Paul in a laundromat, where Godard employs the use of disorienting jump cuts as he paces around telling a story. Paul is rapidly positioned throughout the laundromat with no logical path. Through this quick succession of disparate editing practices, Godard exposes film’s constructed nature.

After a series of hand-held location shots of the crowded cobblestone streets, Paul enters a laundromat and asks his friend to guess what just happened to him. If Masculin Feminin employed a logical Hollywood narrative, perhaps such a story would pertain to the previous bizarre stabbing. However, he merely relays an unrelated tale where he felt like someone was following him while walking down the street. This story has no larger implications on the narrative itself but is a playful and comic anecdote. Godard cuts to Paul sitting beside Robert. We hear whistling as Robert speaks. It is unclear at first as to whether this is a non-diegetic sound effect (which Godard has employed before in the film) or if it is coming from Paul. Robert then invites Paul and Madeline to come with him Saturday to hang up posters. Paul responds that he does want to bring her for he wishes to break up with her. However, he is going to be forced to live with her since he is being kicked out of his apartment. This youthful aversion and suspicion of romantic commitment is another characteristic of the French New Wave.

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Robert opens a newspaper and reads an article about Bob Dylan. “He is a Vietnik,” Robert says, as in a Vietnam protester and a beatnik. Youthful preoccupations with politics (the Vietnam War) and topical pop culture references encompass many French New Wave films. Bob Dylan is the quintessential icon for rebellious early 1960s youth doubling as political activists. The pair then sing a song about killing tyrannical political figures- Hitler, Stalin and Lyndon Johnson. The sequence ends with a physical gag of Paul stimulating sexual intercourse with his hands. Godard once again juxtaposes comedy and tragedy as Paul then immediately laments his unhappiness, “I don’t know why I’m laughing,” he says. Paul and Robert’s interactions have a loose, improvisational feel. Their final exchange signals Masculin Feminin’s interrogation of gender politics on the cusp of second wave feminism: “Ever notice there’s the word ‘mask’ in masculine? And also ‘ass’?” “And in feminine?” “Nothing.”  Overall, both scenes have an ethos of eccentric playfulness– Paul’s comedic story, the pinball confrontation and sex jokes.

Jacknife: Playing House

Martha works as a schoolteacher and takes care of her Vietnam veteran brother. She functions as both his housewife and mother: cooking and cleaning, waking him from drunken stupors, fretting over his late-night bar crawls and morning drinking habits. Her alcoholic and unemployed brother David is psychologically disturbed by the death of his friend and fellow solider Bobby. Megs’ arrival functions as the catalyst to remove both from their passive states. Jacknife stages the siblings’ cyclical post-Vietnam existence and within the oppressive space of the childhood home.

Jones employs claustrophobic framings to emphasize the home’s suffocating power. Kitschy trinkets and antiques fill rooms enveloped in elaborately painted wallpapers of intricate florals, mountain landscapes, or 1960s psychedelic circles. These styles harshly juxtapose other patterns found on props such as couches or blankets. David and Martha live amongst their parents’ possessions and décor while attempting to fill the roles they’ve left behind. David romanticizes the site of his prewar innocence, “I love this place. Every good memory I have.” With their mother living in Florida and father long since passed away, it is too late for the siblings to both regain the gratification of prewar familial bonds.

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David’s paternal relationship embodies both the irreversibility of time lost and the larger national ideals found in Vietnam representation. David learned of his father’s death immediately after arriving home on the plane from Vietnam. He had anticipated a vengeful reunion with his father. “It was my dad’s gung-ho vet shit that got me to enlist in the first place. I’d been fantasizing for months that the first thing I was gonna do when I got home was deck that son of a bitch. These veterans had experienced youthful ideas of male adulthood through the lives of their fathers; fathers invoked the ideal of manliness for their sons.” Vietnam shattered the innocent ideals of World War II patriotism instilled by his father and it was too late to confront him.

 David attempts to recover the honor, integrity, and manhood that Vietnam combat was supposed to bestow on him by performing roles of masculine superiority and that construct Martha as both virginal housewife and daughter figure.  However, he simultaneously maintains the oppositional desire to be cared for as a child by positioning Martha as his mother figure. Also, David’s desire for a stable household and the restitution of paternal authority is acted out in a scene where he visits Bobby’s parents and virtually begs them to let him do chores around their house.Whether it be his sister or the parents of his dead friend, David is looking for anyone to parent him.

 The character of Megs unexpectedly arrives to coax David into joining him on a fishing trip. Martha is intrigued by this new visitor and proposes that she join them. “You’d think you’d enjoy a woman’s company for a change,” she tells David. This line indicates Jeffords’ theory of feminine exclusion. Veterans privilege the camaraderie of other veterans and forcibly extract a woman’s presence from their daily lives. “A woman we could use; a sister we don’t need,” David replies. We read this remark as David’s failure to construct Martha as a lover figure for his sister she cannot offer him sexual gratification. Martha disparages David’s choice in women, claiming that they are too simple to hold an engaging conversation. David replies, “If I wanted a point of view, I’d listen to the news.” This statement perpetuates Susan Jeffords’ discourse on the veterans’ appropriation of women’s bodies as “entrances to a place out of war.”  David does not bother to engage with women beyond a sexual relationship because they cannot ‘understand’ the war, for ultimately it is a ‘man’s story.’

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Megs offers Martha a beer but David speaks for her to say that she doesn’t drink. Martha defiantly takes the beer and asserts that she will join the fishing trip, signaling her newfound agency and future alliance with Megs. Martha’s agency violates David’s need to reconstitute a household of patriarchal order. David confronts this disruption after spotting Martha and Megs on a restaurant date. Martha returns home to a darkened room and turns on the light to reveal David sitting in the chair like an angry father waiting for his daughter who missed curfew. “Becoming quite the social butterfly, aren’t we, sis?” he says, vehemently opposing Martha’s newfound independent discovery of a world beyond the confines of their home and complex relationship.

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Martha’s emerging sexual agency threatens David’s construction of her as both virginal mother figure and daughter. David continues to enact the role of protective father by lecturing that Megs is dangerous, crazy and has assault charges. David walks into Martha’s bedroom after their fight, pleading like a petulant and punished little boy, “Is it really so bad around here?” Martha indicates his failure to fulfill her sexual desires, “The things I want, you can’t give me.” David quietly asks if she is going to leave. She replies, “someday.”  Martha threatens her agency just as her mother employed hers by moving to Florida. In this exchange, Martha establishes her ultimate goal to remove herself from these infantilized performances to become an independent woman in a romantic relationship away from the childhood home. Megs has sparked a change in her to take control of her life again. Jones reinforces Martha’s objective during one of the few scenes of her outside of Megs and David’s orbit. After teaching class, she observes students in the hall during a romantic embrace. Jones focuses on Martha’s reaction shot, indicating her discomfort that teenagers have pursued a relationship while she, an adult woman, has not.

In another scene, Martha rushes downstairs to proudly display her newly sewn dress. She announces that Megs is taking her to chaperone the school’s prom. David replies with a cruel and mocking laugh. He exhibits virile force by slamming the freezer door shut on Martha and screaming at her, performing once again as the protective father disciplining his daughter. He insists that Martha cancel the date. Martha threatens to leave “just like mama.” Jones frames this line on David’s facial reaction to signal the power and anxieties this event holds on him. After the argument, Martha sits on her bed and glances into her triptych mirror, indicating the variety of roles she playacts: the pretty prom date she longs to be and the roles of mother, daughter and wife she performs for David.

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As this analysis indicates, the lack of parental guidance in Vietnam’s wake has left them both unstable. They are two adults playing a life-size game of house, pretending to be father and daughter or mother and son. But why does Martha willingly perform these roles?  She does not want to disrupt David’s world any further for Vietnam has taken enough from him. Just as David felt bound by familial duty to enlist in the war, Martha is bound to her responsibility to take care of her brother. Jacknife reinforces Martha’s strong bond and tender feelings towards her brother. One scene depicts Martha lovingly glancing down at the sleeping David while she gently rubs her hand on his cheek. Martha later admits that she only stays for him and she worries every single night that David is out there killing himself. Jacknife therefore defines Martha’s loving devotion for her brother as the impetus for her gendered performance and static existence.